Garmin’s model was based on selling GPS devices (and to some extent, map updates) which were later superseded by smartphones.
OnStar created an industry seemingly overnight by using a relatively low-tech link from vehicles to a call center. Users could simply press an OnStar button in their car to start a speakerphone call to a navigation concierge. OnStar successfully launched the concept of automobility-related subscriptions.
Navteq and Here are mapping companies focused on selling the map itself—an intellectual property/technology value model.
Google Maps and Waze made the leap to network orchestration. But Google does it by networking things and ideas, while Waze networks people and connections.